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Direction: Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow.
 
India’s admittance into the Wassenaar Arrangement, a multilateral export control regime, as its 42nd participating member is a big step forward in its quest for formal acceptance as a responsible nuclear power. This has come a year after India made the request for membership. As a non-signatory to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), New Delhi has been at pains to convey to the international community that it adheres to, and is invested in, a rules-based order. The Wassenaar Arrangement was founded in 1996, and is clubbed with mechanisms such as the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG), the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) and the Australia Group. Its stated aim is “to contribute to regional and international security and stability, by promoting transparency and greater responsibility in transfers of conventional arms and dual-use goods and technologies, thus preventing destabilizing accumulations.” India’s Wassenaar success at the Vienna plenary meeting last week presumes a broad acceptance among its members of the country’s credentials as a fastidious adherent to export controls. It comes on the heels of membership last year of the MTCR. Ever since India signed the 123 Agreement in 2005, the underlying assumption was that the United States would help chaperone New Delhi into global nuclear acceptability after it separated its civil and military nuclear programmes and plugged the loopholes to prevent diffusion of nuclear materials and technology in a way that is demonstrably in line with best practices followed by the members of the NSG.

However, over the past couple of years it has become evident that Delhi has to do most of the heavy lifting to gain a seat at various global high tables. The Wassenaar Arrangement membership is also a lesson on the need for quiet diplomacy in sensitive nuclear issues, compared to the botched attempt to gain entry to the NSG last year. While India’s efforts at the NSG were stopped by China, which is not a member of the Wassenaar Arrangement, raising the pitch publicly at the time came with costs. It made the task of forging a consensus on membership to the NSG more difficult. And when that attempt failed, it gave the setback the appearance of being significantly more insurmountable. Nonetheless, now that more and more countries are signing on to India’s steadily strengthening credentials in the nuclear area, there is hope that a fresh momentum will be imparted to a future bid for the NSG. It will not be easy. The Australia Group, which focuses on biological and chemical weapons, may be easier to crack given that China is not a member. But meanwhile, the Wassenaar Arrangement will embed India deeper in the global non-proliferation architecture and enable access to critical technologies in the defence and space sectors.
» Explain it
E
Refer to, “India’s admittance into the Wassenaar Arrangement, a multilateral export control regime, as its 42nd participating member is a big step forward in its quest for formal acceptance as a responsible nuclear power. This has come a year after India made the request for membership.”
 
From the above lines it is clear that India is now considered as a responsible nuclear power of the world and that is why despite not being a member of NPT, the member countries of the Wassenaar Agreement have accepted the membership of the country into this club.
 
Among the given options, Option A, B, C and D are completely out of context since none of these statements follows from the information given in the passage. Only Option E implies the meaning of the acceptance of the membership request of India by the Wassenaar Agreement group.
 
This makes option E the correct choice among the given options.

2
Consider the following statements regarding the Wassenaar Group.

I. This group was formed in the 21st century by the nuclear-enabled countries in order to ensure the development of nuclear energy in a responsible manner.
II. All the members of the Nuclear Suppliers’ Group are not members of the Wassenaar Group also.
III. The Wassenaar Agreement works in tandem with Missile Technology Control Regime, Australia Group and NSG in order to prevent the nuclear technology from disturbing the global order
 
Which among the above statements is/are correct with reference to the information given in the passage?
» Explain it
B
Statement I is incorrect since the Wassenaar Group is dedicated towards making the use and development of nuclear energy responsible and beneficial to the world rather than disturbing the global peace but it is not correct regarding the year of formation of Wassenaar Group. Refer to, The Wassenaar Arrangement was founded in 1996, and is clubbed with mechanisms such as the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG), the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) and the Australia Group. Its stated aim is “to contribute to regional and international security and stability, by promoting transparency and greater responsibility in transfers of conventional arms and dual-use goods and technologies, thus preventing destabilizing accumulations.The Wassenaar Group was formed in 1996 i.e. in the 20th century and not in the 21st century as given in the statement.

Statement II is correct since it is mentioned in the passage that China is not a member of the Wassenaar Group whereas it is a member of the NSG and it blocked the application from our country at the NSG Meeting last year. Refer to, While India’s efforts at the NSG were stopped by China, which is not a member of the Wassenaar Arrangement, raising the pitch publicly at the time came with costs.

Statement III is also correct since the Wassenaar Agreement functions in tandem with the other agreement such as the NSG, Australia Group etc. to develop a world with better nuclear energy. Refer to, The Wassenaar Arrangement was founded in 1996, and is clubbed with mechanisms such as the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG), the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) and the Australia Group. Its stated aim is “to contribute to regional and international security and stability, by promoting transparency and greater responsibility in transfers of conventional arms and dual-use goods and technologies, thus preventing destabilizing accumulations.

This makes option B the correct choice among the given options.
 
» Explain it
B
Refer to, The Wassenaar Arrangement membership is also a lesson on the need for quiet diplomacy in sensitive nuclear issues, compared to the botched attempt to gain entry to the NSG last year.

From the above lines, it is clear that India needs to understand the importance of quiet diplomacy at the international level so that it can get the most out of such moves rather than just making its point at the public forums where there are other countries that may stall moves by the government.

Among the given options, option A is not correct since it is irrelevant in the context of the passage whereas option C is not correct since this point is nowhere referred to in the passage. The same can be said about options D and E which can be eliminated since they do not imply the actual lesson that should be learnt by India in the whole episode. Only B implies the actual answer.

This makes option B the correct choice among the given options.
 
» Explain it
C
Refer to, Ever since India signed the 123 Agreement in 2005, the underlying assumption was that the United States would help chaperone New Delhi into global nuclear acceptability after it separated its civil and military nuclear programmes and plugged the loopholes to prevent diffusion of nuclear materials and technology in a way that is demonstrably in line with best practices followed by the members of the NSG.

It is clear that USA is supporting India’s cause in the global stage regarding the nuclear acceptability as India is now following the best practices of the NSG group. There is no reason to believe that India will do something irresponsible with nuclear weapons developed in the country.

Among the given options, option A is not correct since it is giving the right idea regarding the assumption but the stated reason is not correct whereas option B is not correct since there is no reference in the passage regarding monetary support by USA to India in the area of nuclear program in the country. Options D and E can be eliminated since they also do not convey the actual assumption of the Indian government regarding the reaction of USA towards the development of nuclear weapons in the country. Option C is the correct choice as it correctly explains that USA is favoring India and it is also supporting our country in the global platforms.

This makes option C the correct choice among the given options.
 
» Explain it
E
Refer to,The Australia Group, which focuses on biological and chemical weapons, may be easier to crack given that China is not a member.

Statement A cannot be considered as correct since there is no reference in the passage regarding the importance of the Australia Group though the first part regarding the functional area of the group is correct.

Statement B cannot be considered as correct since it is clear that India is not a member of the Australia Group and it is said that entry to this group will be easier for India since China is not a member of this group.

Statement C is not correct since the sentence is not relevant to the passage and that is why it can be eliminated easily as an inference that follows from the given passage.

This makes option E the correct choice among the given options.
 

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