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Direction: In each of the questions, there are 4 sentences or parts of sentences that form a paragraph. Identify the sentence/s or part/s that is/are correct in terms of grammar and usage and choose the answer accordingly.
1
I. A week ago newspapers reported that a handful of the big Western oil companies
II. were close to unveiling contracts for work in Iraq, 
III. whose underexploited oil reserves are probably second
IV. only to Saudi Arabia.
» Explain it
C
There is an error of comparison in fragment IV. In the sentence underexploited oil reserves of Iraq must be compared to those of Saudi Arabia but ‘those of’ is missing in the fragment.

Option C is hence the correct answer.

 
 
2
I. The translation isn’t great and some of the local officials 
II. have a tendency to go off at tangents, but it’s
III. have found to gather opinion, and the Afghans have learnt
IV. to be forthright with the straight-talking Americans. 
» Explain it
B
The idiom ‘go off on a tangent’ means to suddenly start talking about a different subject.
 
Ex. We were talking about property prices and you went off on a tangent.
 
But, in fragment II the preposition ‘on’ is missing in the idiom – which is an error. 
 
The correct sentence would therefore be, “The translation isn’t great and some of the local officials  have a tendency to go off at tangents, but it’s have found to gather opinion, and the Afghans have learnt  to be forthright with the straight-talking Americans.”
 
Option B is hence the correct answer.


 
3
I. So once an economy is actually in recession,
II. the authorities can, in principle, move the economy
III. out of slump – assuming hypothetically
IV. that they know how to – by a temporary stimuli.
 
» Explain it
D
Fragment I is incorrect as the usage of the word ‘so’ is redundant and inappropriate in the context. 
 
Fragment III is also erroneous because the use of ‘assuming hypothetically’ makes it redundant. Once can either assume or hypothesize, but ‘assuming hypothetically’ is absurd. 
 
Fragment IV is incorrect too as the noun ‘stimuli’ is used with the article ‘a’. It must therefore be replaced by its singular form ‘stimulus’ to make it grammatically correct. 
 
The correct sentence would therefore be, “Once an economy is actually in recession,  the authorities can, in principle, move the economy  out of slump – assuming hypothetically that they kow how to – by a temporary stimuli.”
 
Option D is hence the correct answer.

 
4
I. The idea proposed has been put into practice by everyone
II. from eight year old children who recycle, and major companies
III. that desperately trying to perfect
IV. alternative fuels for human use.
 
» Explain it
D
The fragment II is erroneous as a range should be expressed from x to y, not from y to x. The word “And” right before ‘major companies’ in the fragment II must therefore be replaced by the preposition “to” to make it grammatically correct.

Further, fragment III also has a tense error as it lacks the helping verb “are”.

The correct sentence would therefore be, “The idea proposed has been put into practice by everyone from eight year old children who recycle, and major companies that desperately trying to perfect alternative fuels for human use.”

Option D is hence the correct answer.

 
5
I. If the energy legislation had
II. a chance of passing, it would have
III. stirred tens of billions of dollars of energy investment
IV. toward efficiency projects, renewable resources such as solar, wind and nuclear power.
 
» Explain it
A
The sentence has tense error in fragment I. The sentence is clearly the type 3 conditional one and therefore the ‘If’ clause must be in perfect tense (had + past participle of the verb). 
 
All other fragments are absolutely correct.
 
The correct sentence would therefore be, “If the energy legislation had had a chance of passing, it would have stirred tens of billions of dollars of energy investment toward efficiency projects, renewable resources such as solar, wind and nuclear power.”
 
Option A is hence the correct answer.