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Important for :

1

The Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act, 2006 (PWDVA) was introduced after years of advocacy by women’s groups.

**(I)** **The PWDVA was envisaged as a multiagency response to the needs of the survivor. **Women continue to struggle with delays in judicial proceedings, inadequate court orders, and a lack of other mechanisms envisaged under the law.** **

(II) **Unfortunately, as the study reveals, there ****Is a serious gap between what women expect and need from the law, and what the system actually ****delivers.** The study attempted to understand women’s experiences with legal processes, assess the implementation of the act in terms of the stakeholder network, identify the kinds of orders women obtained in court, and analyse how they navigated the legal system and used the law to get relief.** **

(III) **Around 49% of women also stated that they faced financial difficulties due to the court cases, which is also linked to the large number of withdrawn and dismissed cases.** The women who were interviewed cited delays and protracted procedures as the main problems they experienced.

**(IV) Moreover, the stakeholder network was found to be fractured and sparse.**

(II)

(III)

D

I. The statement is incorrect as it does not logically connect with the next sentence. The succeeding statement conveys a contradictory point and which seems abrupt.

II. The statement is incorrect as there is no mention of any study in any of the preceding statements. A hint here is the use of the article*the* which conveys that the study has already been introduced earlier somewhere.

III. The use of the word*also* is the key here. This implies that the statement has a different preceding statement than the one mentioned in the passage. Hence, this is incorrect.

IV. This is correct and logically sound.

Hence, option D is correct.

II. The statement is incorrect as there is no mention of any study in any of the preceding statements. A hint here is the use of the article

III. The use of the word

IV. This is correct and logically sound.

Hence, option D is correct.

2

It was almost a 100 years back that the first trade union was started in the country and then decades after that the working class won the right to organise and collective bargaining.

**(I)** **However, the government appears to be bent on turning the clock back.** Having allowed mainstream media and industry to propagate the notion that India’s supposedly unwieldy and excessive labour laws are at the heart of lack of investment and economic growth, it has persistently pushed for labour law reforms.** **

(II) **The centre’s proposal of four labour codes to subsume all labour laws is also aimed at breaking the backbone of unions under the objective of “easing” business.** So how should the trade unions rethink their strategy? The three-day protest from 9 November by 10 central trade unions in Delhi drew unprecedented support but how impactful was it in terms of government and industry response?

**(III) The previous two such strikes also drew massive support but while mainstream media reported on them cursorily, industry and government preferred to term them “partial” and carry on with the labour reform agenda**. Interestingly, when the united protests of trade unions made labour reform measures difﬁ cult at the national level, the central government encouraged state governments to take up the task enthusiastically**.**

(IV) The competition between states to attract investment was termed “competitive federalism” by supporters of this strategy.

(II)

(IV) The competition between states to attract investment was termed “competitive federalism” by supporters of this strategy.

3

(III)

(IV)

C

I. This statement is reinforced by the second one and is logically continuous. Hence, it is correct.

II. This statement also matches well with the succeeding one as both talk about the conduct of judges.

III. This appears absurd. The preceding sentence talks about judges and their conduct while the one in question abruptly shifts to a bribery case and also does not match with the next sentence. This is incorrect.

IV. The sentence begins well but then the phrase- ‘**hope to do none of ***these* with any level of efficacy’ makes the sentence meaningless. *These* is not specified in the sentence and also does not match with the preceding sentence. This is incorrect.

Hence, option C is correct.

II. This statement also matches well with the succeeding one as both talk about the conduct of judges.

III. This appears absurd. The preceding sentence talks about judges and their conduct while the one in question abruptly shifts to a bribery case and also does not match with the next sentence. This is incorrect.

IV. The sentence begins well but then the phrase- ‘

Hence, option C is correct.

4

(II) It is clear then that to be workable, a smart cycle grid needs a good road network, clean and well-maintained tracks, and landscaping to make for a pleasant and pollution-free cycling experience and differential pricing for different economic sections..

(III)

A

I. This is correct as it provides a logical introduction to the passage.

II. This is correct as it takes forward the contradictory point presented in the previous statement.

III. The*scheme* mentioned is nowhere mentioned in the preceding statement. Also, the statement states that the scheme was abandoned within a year which does not connect with the preceding or succeeding sentences.

IV. This is correct as it takes forward the issues with the scheme.

II. This is correct as it takes forward the contradictory point presented in the previous statement.

III. The

IV. This is correct as it takes forward the issues with the scheme.

Hence, option A is correct.

5

(II)

E

I. The first statement is incorrect as the next statement talks about a different topic.

II. The correct and fits in with the other sentences.

III. The statement is incorrect as it sounds disjointed and abrupt. The sentences preceding this are already discussing the history of Korea and this statement seems redundant.

IV. This is incorrect as it suddenly moves from how the world powers were disinterested in Korea to its division in 1948. This is very abrupt and does not make sense.

Hence, option E is correct.

II. The correct and fits in with the other sentences.

III. The statement is incorrect as it sounds disjointed and abrupt. The sentences preceding this are already discussing the history of Korea and this statement seems redundant.

IV. This is incorrect as it suddenly moves from how the world powers were disinterested in Korea to its division in 1948. This is very abrupt and does not make sense.

Hence, option E is correct.