Directions: In the question given below, a short paragraph is given, with three/four sentence highlighted in bold. From the given choices, choose the one that represents the correct combination of sentence(s) that are contextually incorrect.
The Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act, 2006 (PWDVA) was introduced after years of advocacy by women’s groups. 
(I) The PWDVA was envisaged as a multiagency response to the needs of the survivor. Women continue to struggle with delays in judicial proceedings, inadequate court orders, and a lack of other mechanisms envisaged under the law. 

 Unfortunately, as the study reveals, there Is a serious gap between what women expect and need from the law, and what the system actually delivers. The study attempted to understand women’s experiences with legal processes, assess the implementation of the act in terms of the stakeholder network, identify the kinds of orders women obtained in court, and analyse how they navigated the legal system and used the law to get relief. 

 Around 49% of women also stated that they faced financial difficulties due to the court cases, which is also linked to the large number of withdrawn and dismissed cases. The women who were interviewed cited delays and protracted procedures as the main problems they experienced. 

(IV) Moreover, the stakeholder network was found to be fractured and sparse.
» Explain it
I. The statement is incorrect as it does not logically connect with the next sentence. The succeeding statement conveys a contradictory point and which seems abrupt.

II. The statement is incorrect as there is no mention of any study in any of the preceding statements. A hint here is the use of the article the which conveys that the study has already been introduced earlier somewhere.

III. The use of the word also is the key here. This implies that the statement has a different preceding statement than the one mentioned in the passage. Hence, this is incorrect.

IV. This is correct and logically sound.

Hence, option D is correct.
It was almost a 100 years back that the first trade union was started in the country and then decades after that the working class won the right to organise and collective bargaining. 

(I) However, the government appears to be bent on turning the clock back. Having allowed mainstream media and industry to propagate the notion that India’s supposedly unwieldy and excessive labour laws are at the heart of lack of investment and economic growth, it has persistently pushed for labour law reforms. 

 The centre’s proposal of four labour codes to subsume all labour laws is also aimed at breaking the backbone of unions under the objective of “easing” business. So how should the trade unions rethink their strategy? The three-day protest from 9 November by 10 central trade unions in Delhi drew unprecedented support but how impactful was it in terms of government and industry response? 

(III) The previous two such strikes also drew massive support but while mainstream media reported on them cursorily, industry and government preferred to term them “partial” and carry on with the labour reform agenda. Interestingly, when the united protests of trade unions made labour reform measures diffi cult at the national level, the central government encouraged state governments to take up the task enthusiastically.

(IV) The competition between states to attract investment was termed “competitive federalism” by supporters of this strategy.
» Explain it
All the statements are correct in terms of context and combination. 
Hence, option E is correct.

(I) Without control over “either the sword or the purse,” the judiciary relies solely on the perception that it is a neutral, independent and impartial arbiter of disputes. It enjoys the faith of the people only because it can reinforce the faith of the people on an everyday basis in the way it conducts itself. 

(II) The dignity of the court rests not on the use of its powers of contempt or the trappings of office, but in the way in which judges and lawyers conduct themselves and uphold the institution when faced with external challenges. Judges are held to higher standards of conduct than civil servants and elected representatives precisely because of this feature of the judiciary, and when they fail to meet these standards, the institution suffers.
 Contrary to what the Court’s order passed on 14 November may suggest, the Medical Council of India (MCI) bribery case raises grave doubts about the integrity of judges of the Supreme Court, in the context of cases that were heard and decided by the present CJI, Justice Dipak Misra. In one short week, the spectre of judicial corruption at the highest level was raised, judicial discipline was breached by judges, the CJI made a mockery of the principle that no one shall be a judge in their own cause and a disreputable order that tries to interfere with the course of an investigation was issued in the name of putting a quietus to the whole issue. 

 A judiciary mired in corruption, intrigue, and nepotism can hope to do none of these with any level of efficacy.
» Explain it
I. This statement is reinforced by the second one and is logically continuous. Hence, it is correct.

II. This statement also matches well with the succeeding one as both talk about the conduct of judges.

III. This appears absurd. The preceding sentence talks about judges and their conduct while the one in question abruptly shifts to a bribery case and also does not match with the next sentence. This is incorrect.

IV. The sentence begins well but then the phrase- ‘hope to do none of these with any level of efficacy’ makes the sentence meaningless. These is not specified in the sentence and also does not match with the preceding sentence. This is incorrect.

Hence, option C is correct.
(I) Bike-sharing schemes enable citizens to cycle from home to the bus stop, disembark near their workplace, and again cycle to their destination. However, they also call for access to quality roads across the city, efficient bicycles, and regular and comfortable buses or metros. 

(II) It is clear then that to be workable, a smart cycle grid needs a good road network, clean and well-maintained tracks, and landscaping to make for a pleasant and pollution-free cycling experience and differential pricing for different economic sections..
 Most of Bhopal’s residents, especially the segment most likely to use this system, have no quality roads even within 100 metres of their home, let alone adjoining their residence. 

 Enormous amounts of public money have been wasted on a scheme that was abandoned within a year. Further, even the best roads in Bhopal, running along key routes, last for only six months: they are washed away with the first rains in July/August, with the consequent potholes repaired only by the end of the year. 

(IV) Besides, it would be difficult to monitor pilferage and tampering of these smart bicycles costing Rs 12,500 each, and fit with high-tech gadgets such as global positioning system (GPS) and calorie counters.
» Explain it
I. This is correct as it provides a logical introduction to the passage.

II. This is correct as it takes forward the contradictory point presented in the previous statement.

III. The scheme mentioned is nowhere mentioned in the preceding statement. Also, the statement states that the scheme was abandoned within a year which does not connect with the preceding or succeeding sentences.

IV. This is correct as it takes forward the issues with the scheme.
Hence, option A is correct.
(I) Much worse is the national apathy about the Korean War, where the civilian count was higher, at around 2.73 million. Japanese incursions into Korea began around 1870, but Great Power politics enabled the Koreans to stave off colonization for a few more decades before Japan finally annexed Korea in 1910.

 Resistance to Japanese rule intensified with the advent of communism, and the surrender of the Japanese in August 1945 led to the declaration of Korean independence. The Soviet Union was not a force in the Pacific theatre of war; it had played no direct part in the liberation of Korea. 

(III) The history of Korea in the first half of the 20th century is germane to the present situation. The consequence was that the spoils of war were, upon Japan’s surrender on 15 August, now to be divided between the victorious Americans and Russians, who carved out zones of influence. Korea might well have remained a unified country, had either the US or the Soviet Union lavished any real attention on it. 

(IV) It was along the 38th parallel that two countries came into existence in 1948.
» Explain it
I. The first statement is incorrect as the next statement talks about a different topic.

II. The correct and fits in with the other sentences.

III. The statement is incorrect as it sounds disjointed and abrupt. The sentences preceding this are already discussing the history of Korea and this statement seems redundant.

IV. This is incorrect as it suddenly moves from how the world powers were disinterested in Korea to its division in 1948. This is very abrupt and does not make sense.

Hence, option E is correct.