Spot the Error Questions for IBPS Clerk Pre 2018 | Error Spotting PDF at Smartkeeda

Directions: In the questions given below, a sentence has been broken down into four fragments labeled (A), (B), (C) and (D). One of the fragments contains an error. You are required to identify and mark that fragment as your answer. In case, the sentence is correct with no error, please select (E) as your answer.
» Explain it
D
Fragment D has an error with respect to the word cloud which renders the statement meaningless. The correct word would be clout which means influence/power.

Correct sentence: Russia, under President Vladimir Putin, is well aware of the shifting global economic balance of power in favour of Asia, and understands that economic integration with this region is the key to Russia’s successful long-term economic growth and geopolitical clout.

Hence, option D is correct.

 
» Explain it
B
Fragment B is erroneous due to use of for instead of since. The statement tries to convey that the CWC, from the time it was set up, has not been reformed. Since conveys this well while for does not.

Correct sentence: The Central Water Commission was set up in 1945 and has since then continued to function unreformed, presiding over a development paradigm based on command-and-control over the rivers of India.

Hence, option B is correct.
 
» Explain it
C
Fragment C is erroneous due to usage of on instead of at. The correct phrase is at the same time which means simultaneously.

Correct sentence: India’s focus must be on strengthening public health systems at all levels by investing in better infrastructure as well as human resources and at the same time, progress also needs to be made on the regulation of the ever-growing private sector.

Hence, option C is correct.
 
» Explain it
E
The statement is correct in its original form and has no error.

Thus, option E is correct.

» Explain it
A
Fragment A has an error due to the word reassureReassure means to comfort someone while here the statement talks about providing a dignified life. The correct word would be ensure which means to make sure.

Correct sentence: When a government fails to ensure a life with dignity for the sick and the elderly, it loses all moral authority to deny people the right to a dignified death.

Hence, option A is correct.
 

Find The Error Quiz 42 Page 1
 
Error detection or Spotting error is one of the scoring topics of English section in bank exams. With the time spotting error has gone through several changes. Let us see the different patterns of Error detection questions that are asked in IBPS PO Pre, Clerk Pre, SO Pre, PO mains, Clerk mains, SO mains, RRB Scale 1 officer mains, RRB Office Assistant mains.

Examples of Spotting Error questions asked in Bank exams

Pattern 1 of Spotting error questions

Directions: In the following question, some part of the sentence may have errors. Find out which part of the sentence has an error and select the appropriate option. If a sentence is free from error, select 'No Error'.

The time has come for policy makers (A) / in India to understand the damage (B) / which is caused as a result of (C) / a vast gap in perception and reality. (D)/No error (E)

A. The time has come for policy makers
B. in India to understand the damage
C. which is caused as a result of
D. a vast gap in perception and reality.
E. No error

Explanation:

By reading the whole sentence in one go, we can observe that there is a mismatch related to incorrect usage of helping verb. The fragment A is in perfect tense, fragment B talks about the damage that has been occurred over the time, therefore in fragment C, instead of helping verb ‘is’, “has been” is preferred in order to symbolize the time.

Thus fragment ‘C’ is erroneous and the correct option as well.

Important Tips to detect error quickly

1. Pay attention towards directions

The directions play an important part in such sort of questions as it helps us to identify what are we expected to do. So, always give some time to read the directions carefully and act accordingly.

2. Brush up your basics

Basically spotting error checks the grammar ability of the students. Thus grammar skills should be brushed up. The basic rules of subject-verb agreement, parts of speech, article and tense should be studied thoroughly to attain accuracy. Maximum number of errors is observed from these topics of English grammar.

3. Practice the important rules

The pragmatic approach of learning is always more effective than merely reading. Always practice what you read in order to fix it in your mind.
For more quizzes on Spotting errors or Error detection, please click the below link

https://www.smartkeeda.com/General_English/Grammar_Knowledge/Find_the_Error_Quiz/newest/all/passage/Find_the_error_Quiz_11/


Pattern2 of Error detection questions (asked in IBPS Clerk Pre 2017)
 
Directions: In the following question, a sentence is broken into four parts viz. A,B,C and D. Some parts of the sentence may have errors. Find out which part of the sentence does not have an error and select the appropriate option.

The government was introduced (A)/ a new law who forces (B)/ farmers to sell it’s produce (C)/ only to licensed dealers.(D)

Explanation:
The objective is to identify the error free fragment.  Let us check this fragment by fragment starting with fragment A.

‘Was introduced’ looks incomplete, as it is used when someone is made known to something, so if government was made known to a new law, then ‘to’ must succeed “introduced”, but here it is the government which has made a new law, thus “was” should be replaced with “has”.

In fragment B, reflexive pronoun ‘who’ must be replaced with “which” because who is used for living things and which is used for non-living things such as ‘law’.

Fragment C also have an error with regard to use of relative pronoun ‘it’s’ being used for a living thing. Here farmers represent plural number, thus “their” should be used instead of ‘it’s’.

Fragment D is correct in all respects. Thus the correct option is Option D.

Tips to solve spotting error questions asked in IBPS Clerk Pre 2017

1. Meticulous understanding of directions

This is the very first and foremost thing while attempting Error detection questions in order to know what has been asked actually. Like here, for a change IBPS has asked the error free part instead of the old pattern where it always asks the erroneous part. So, directions play a vital role here.

2. Read the full sentence in one go

Read the sentence in one go, this will help you to arrive at the fragment where something lacks. Then pay more attention towards the fragment and reach the error.

3. Use grammar basics

Grammar ability is checked through spot the error type of questions, thus one should focus on those skills to attain maximum accuracy.
Pattern 3 of Error detection questions (asked in IBPS Clerk Mains 2017, RRB Scale 1 Officer mains 2017)

Directions: In the questions given below, a statement has been expressed in four different ways. You are required to choose the one/s which is/are correct grammatically and contextually.
 
I. The entire paradigm of development of the existing government in Uttarakhand is geared towards construction at the cost of the environment.
 
II. All that the Uttarakhand Government cares about are the destruction of the environment.

III. The existing Government in Uttarakhand is focused on a construction based development pattern even if it entails harm to the environment.

IV. Uttarakhand’s complete development pattern is focused on environment based construction by involving destruction of natural resources.

A. Only II and IV
B. Only I, III and IV
C. Only I and III
D. Only II, III and IV
E. Only I, II and III

Explanation:

Statement I is absolutely correct as it is grammatically correct.
Statement II is wrong as it uses ‘are’ instead of ‘is’ because destruction is singular.
Statement III is absolutely correct.
Statement IV is erroneous because it is logically incoherent, here environment based construction does not necessarily denote harm to the environment.

Therefore statements I and III are correct and thus option C is the correct option.

Tips to solve spotting error questions asked in IBPS Clerk Mains 2017

1. Enhance reading skills

Good reading skills will help in solving such questions in much lesser time. As there are full length sentences instead of small fragments, where errors are to be observed. Thus one should work upon reading skills to have an edge over others.

2. Grammar is the key

Again grammar rules are the key to ace Error detection or spotting error questions.  Golden rules of English grammar should be learned and practiced on a daily basis to achieve excellence.

For more questions please click below mentioned link:

https://www.smartkeeda.com/General_English/Grammar_Knowledge/Find_the_Error_Quiz/newest/all/passage/Find_the_error_Quiz_36/


Pattern 4 of Error detection questions (asked in SBI Clerk Mains 2018)

Directions: In the questions given below, a statement has been given in bold. This is then expressed in three different ways. You are required to choose the one/s which is/are correct grammatically and contextually and expresses the same meaning as the original one in bold.

Water and food scarcities during drought periods not only accentuate household suffering, but can distort intra-household conflicts.

I. Drought periods lead to distortion of intra-house conflicts due to household suffering leading to water and food scarcities.
II. Accentuation of household suffering is caused by water and food scarcities and focuses on distorting intra-household conflicts.
III. Drought periods lead to water and food scarcities which accentuate household suffering as well as distort intra-household conflicts.

A. Only II
B. Only III
C. Only I and II
D. Only II and III
E. None of the above

Explanation:

Let us check all the three statements one by one.

Statement I: It explains household suffering as a reason of intra-house conflicts, whereas in the bold statement “Water and food scarcity” is the reason behind both the events. Thus is contextually incorrect.

Statement II: It does not talk about the scenario behind water and food scarcities, thus renders incomplete information only. Therefore it is also contextually incorrect.

Statement III: It contains all the facts and information that are described in the bold statement and also grammatically correct.
Hence option B is correct. 

How to solve spotting error questions asked in SBI Clerk Mains 2018

1. Understand the essence of given statement

First of all read the bold statement very attentively and then understand the essence of it. Only then you can find out whether the other statements render the facts completely or not.

2. Check Grammar portion

After checking the context part, then look out for the grammatical errors. Sometimes the given statement might be contextually correct but it may contain grammatical mistakes.

3. Daily practice

Practice daily by attempting quizzes on the new pattern spotting error questions at www.smartkeeda.com will boost your preparation. Also study an article from the English newspaper to improve your reading skills.

For more questions with answers based on new pattern error detection please click the below link

https://www.smartkeeda.com/General_English/Grammar_Knowledge/Find_the_Error_Quiz/newest/all/passage/Find_the_error_Quiz_38/


Pattern 5 for spotting error questions (asked in IBPS PO Pre 2017)

Directions : In each of the questions, a sentence has been divided into four parts, one of which may contain an error. Identify that fragment and mark it as your answer. The words in bold are contextually and grammatically correct. Mark (E) if the sentence contains no error.

Angela Merkel said she would prefer to hold a fresh election in spite of than lead a minority government.

A. Angela Merkel said she
B. would prefer to hold
C. a fresh election in spite of
D. than lead a minority government.
E. No error

Here option C contains an error. “In spite of” is incorrectly used here as it does not suit with ‘prefer’, for indicating preference “rather” is used.

Hence option C is correct.

Tips to solve spotting error questions asked in IBPS PO Pre 2017

1. Move around the bold words

One should focus on the bold words and start searching for an error related to those. Like there could be an error where the verb does not suit the bold word or number  is not as per the bold word. The errors are nothing but the mismatch with the bold words in these questions.

2. Focus on Adjectives and Prepositions

For this type of error detection questions, focus should be given to the use of prepositions, conjunctions and adjectives. 90% of the errors are framed this way only.

For more practice please click the below link

https://www.smartkeeda.com/General_English/Grammar_Knowledge/Find_the_Error_Quiz/newest/all/passage/Find_the_error_Quiz_35/


Pattern 6 for spotting error questions (asked in IBPS SO Pre 2017, RRB Office Assistant Mains 2017)

Directions: In each of the questions, a sentence is divided into four parts in which one of the parts is given in bold and is grammatically and contextually correct. You have to identify which fragment, apart from the bold one, is correct in terms of grammar and usage.

Nine months after the Union Cabinet’s (A)/ in-principal nod for offloading the (B)/ government’s stake in Air India, the (C)/ ball has finally been set rolling to privatize the bleating airline. (D)

A. Rest of the fragments have error
B. B
C. C
D. D
E. No error

Fragment B has error due to use of ‘principal’ which means major, whereas “principle” which means ‘a general idea’ is contextually correct here.

Fragment C has no error.

Fragment D uses “bleating” which means weak communication instead of “bleeding” to show the weak position of airline.

Hence option C is correct.

Tips to solve spotting error questions asked in IBPS PO Pre 2017

1. Study homophones

Homophones are the words that sounds similar but have different meaning. These type of questions contain errors regarding the context. Very few errors are observed in terms of Grammar ability.

2. Practice a lot

Regular practice will definitely help in achieving par excellence. Thus practice this type of new pattern error detection quizzes to gain better results.

For more questions with answers on error spotting questions please click the below link

https://www.smartkeeda.com/General_English/Grammar_Knowledge/Find_the_Error_Quiz/newest/all/passage/Find_the_Error_Quiz_26/


Pattern 7 for spotting error questions

Directions: In the questions given below, a statement has been divided into 5 parts with one or more parts containing an error (grammatical and contextual). You are required to choose the part/parts which do not have an error and are contextually and grammatically correct.

Recognizing the corruption prevailing in 2004, the Supreme Court (A) / passed an order banning private contractors from (B) / being suppliers for the Integrated Child Development (C) / Scheme and encouraging the government to employee (D) / local village organisations, mahila mandals or SHGs instead. (E)

Only D and E
Only A, B and D
Only B and C
Only A, B,C and E
None of these

Fragment D is erroneous as it contains noun “employee” in place of verb “employ”.

All other fragments are absolutely error-free, which is asked in the question.

Hence option D is correct.

Tips to solve spotting error questions for IBPS SO Pre, IBPS PO Pre and IBPS Clerk Pre

1. Read the directions carefully

One should be careful while reading directions, because bank authorities change the pattern of error detection questions every single year . Thus read the directions and then attempt that question.

2. Grammar and Spell check

Grammar rules and spelling of English words should be learnt, errors are usually formed from these two portions.
For more questions on find the error please click the below link

https://www.smartkeeda.com/General_English/Grammar_Knowledge/Find_the_Error_Quiz/newest/all/passage/Find_the_error_Quiz_39/


Hopefully this article has lived up your expectations and will help you in boosting up your preparation for the upcoming exams like RRB Scale 1 officer mains, RRB Office Assistant Mains, IBPS PO Pre, IBPS PO Mains, IBPS Clerk Pre, IBPS Clerk Mains and IBPS SO Pre.

For more information and questions on reasoning please log on to www.smartkeeda.com
 
New Pattern Find the Error Questions vs Old Pattern Find the Error Questions

Error detection or Spotting error is one of the scoring topics of English section in bank exams. With the time spotting error has gone through several changes. Let us see the different patterns of Error detection questions that are asked in IBPS PO Pre, Clerk Pre, SO Pre, PO mains, Clerk mains, SO mains, RRB Scale 1 officer mains, RRB Office Assistant mains.

Examples of Spotting Error questions asked in Bank exams

Pattern 1 of Spotting error questions

Directions: In the following question, some part of the sentence may have errors. Find out which part of the sentence has an error and select the appropriate option. If a sentence is free from error, select 'No Error'.

The time has come for policy makers (A) / in India to understand the damage (B) / which is caused as a result of (C) / a vast gap in perception and reality. (D)/No error (E)

A. The time has come for policy makers
B. in India to understand the damage
C. which is caused as a result of
D. a vast gap in perception and reality.
E. No error

Explanation:

By reading the whole sentence in one go, we can observe that there is a mismatch related to incorrect usage of helping verb. The fragment A is in perfect tense, fragment B talks about the damage that has been occurred over the time, therefore in fragment C, instead of helping verb ‘is’, “has been” is preferred in order to symbolize the time.

Thus fragment ‘C’ is erroneous and the correct option as well.

Important Tips to detect error quickly

1. Pay attention towards directions

The directions play an important part in such sort of questions as it helps us to identify what are we expected to do. So, always give some time to read the directions carefully and act accordingly.

2. Brush up your basics

Basically spotting error checks the grammar ability of the students. Thus grammar skills should be brushed up. The basic rules of subject-verb agreement, parts of speech, article and tense should be studied thoroughly to attain accuracy. Maximum number of errors is observed from these topics of English grammar.

3. Practice the important rules

The pragmatic approach of learning is always more effective than merely reading. Always practice what you read in order to fix it in your mind.
For more quizzes on Spotting errors or Error detection, please click the below link

https://www.smartkeeda.com/General_English/Grammar_Knowledge/Find_the_Error_Quiz/newest/all/passage/Find_the_error_Quiz_11/


Pattern2 of Error detection questions (asked in IBPS Clerk Pre 2017)
 
Directions: In the following question, a sentence is broken into four parts viz. A,B,C and D. Some parts of the sentence may have errors. Find out which part of the sentence does not have an error and select the appropriate option.

The government was introduced (A)/ a new law who forces (B)/ farmers to sell it’s produce (C)/ only to licensed dealers.(D)

Explanation:
The objective is to identify the error free fragment.  Let us check this fragment by fragment starting with fragment A.

‘Was introduced’ looks incomplete, as it is used when someone is made known to something, so if government was made known to a new law, then ‘to’ must succeed “introduced”, but here it is the government which has made a new law, thus “was” should be replaced with “has”.

In fragment B, reflexive pronoun ‘who’ must be replaced with “which” because who is used for living things and which is used for non-living things such as ‘law’.

Fragment C also have an error with regard to use of relative pronoun ‘it’s’ being used for a living thing. Here farmers represent plural number, thus “their” should be used instead of ‘it’s’.

Fragment D is correct in all respects. Thus the correct option is Option D.

Tips to solve spotting error questions asked in IBPS Clerk Pre 2017

1. Meticulous understanding of directions

This is the very first and foremost thing while attempting Error detection questions in order to know what has been asked actually. Like here, for a change IBPS has asked the error free part instead of the old pattern where it always asks the erroneous part. So, directions play a vital role here.

2. Read the full sentence in one go

Read the sentence in one go, this will help you to arrive at the fragment where something lacks. Then pay more attention towards the fragment and reach the error.

3. Use grammar basics

Grammar ability is checked through spot the error type of questions, thus one should focus on those skills to attain maximum accuracy.
Pattern 3 of Error detection questions (asked in IBPS Clerk Mains 2017, RRB Scale 1 Officer mains 2017)

Directions: In the questions given below, a statement has been expressed in four different ways. You are required to choose the one/s which is/are correct grammatically and contextually.
 
I. The entire paradigm of development of the existing government in Uttarakhand is geared towards construction at the cost of the environment.
 
II. All that the Uttarakhand Government cares about are the destruction of the environment.

III. The existing Government in Uttarakhand is focused on a construction based development pattern even if it entails harm to the environment.

IV. Uttarakhand’s complete development pattern is focused on environment based construction by involving destruction of natural resources.

A. Only II and IV
B. Only I, III and IV
C. Only I and III
D. Only II, III and IV
E. Only I, II and III

Explanation:

Statement I is absolutely correct as it is grammatically correct.
Statement II is wrong as it uses ‘are’ instead of ‘is’ because destruction is singular.
Statement III is absolutely correct.
Statement IV is erroneous because it is logically incoherent, here environment based construction does not necessarily denote harm to the environment.

Therefore statements I and III are correct and thus option C is the correct option.

Tips to solve spotting error questions asked in IBPS Clerk Mains 2017

1. Enhance reading skills

Good reading skills will help in solving such questions in much lesser time. As there are full length sentences instead of small fragments, where errors are to be observed. Thus one should work upon reading skills to have an edge over others.

2. Grammar is the key

Again grammar rules are the key to ace Error detection or spotting error questions.  Golden rules of English grammar should be learned and practiced on a daily basis to achieve excellence.

For more questions please click below mentioned link:

https://www.smartkeeda.com/General_English/Grammar_Knowledge/Find_the_Error_Quiz/newest/all/passage/Find_the_error_Quiz_36/


Pattern 4 of Error detection questions (asked in SBI Clerk Mains 2018)

Directions: In the questions given below, a statement has been given in bold. This is then expressed in three different ways. You are required to choose the one/s which is/are correct grammatically and contextually and expresses the same meaning as the original one in bold.

Water and food scarcities during drought periods not only accentuate household suffering, but can distort intra-household conflicts.

I. Drought periods lead to distortion of intra-house conflicts due to household suffering leading to water and food scarcities.
II. Accentuation of household suffering is caused by water and food scarcities and focuses on distorting intra-household conflicts.
III. Drought periods lead to water and food scarcities which accentuate household suffering as well as distort intra-household conflicts.

A. Only II
B. Only III
C. Only I and II
D. Only II and III
E. None of the above

Explanation:

Let us check all the three statements one by one.

Statement I: It explains household suffering as a reason of intra-house conflicts, whereas in the bold statement “Water and food scarcity” is the reason behind both the events. Thus is contextually incorrect.

Statement II: It does not talk about the scenario behind water and food scarcities, thus renders incomplete information only. Therefore it is also contextually incorrect.

Statement III: It contains all the facts and information that are described in the bold statement and also grammatically correct.
Hence option B is correct. 

How to solve spotting error questions asked in SBI Clerk Mains 2018

1. Understand the essence of given statement

First of all read the bold statement very attentively and then understand the essence of it. Only then you can find out whether the other statements render the facts completely or not.

2. Check Grammar portion

After checking the context part, then look out for the grammatical errors. Sometimes the given statement might be contextually correct but it may contain grammatical mistakes.

3. Daily practice

Practice daily by attempting quizzes on the new pattern spotting error questions at www.smartkeeda.com will boost your preparation. Also study an article from the English newspaper to improve your reading skills.

For more questions with answers based on new pattern error detection please click the below link

https://www.smartkeeda.com/General_English/Grammar_Knowledge/Find_the_Error_Quiz/newest/all/passage/Find_the_error_Quiz_38/


Pattern 5 for spotting error questions (asked in IBPS PO Pre 2017)

Directions : In each of the questions, a sentence has been divided into four parts, one of which may contain an error. Identify that fragment and mark it as your answer. The words in bold are contextually and grammatically correct. Mark (E) if the sentence contains no error.

Angela Merkel said she would prefer to hold a fresh election in spite of than lead a minority government.

A. Angela Merkel said she
B. would prefer to hold
C. a fresh election in spite of
D. than lead a minority government.
E. No error

Here option C contains an error. “In spite of” is incorrectly used here as it does not suit with ‘prefer’, for indicating preference “rather” is used.

Hence option C is correct.

Tips to solve spotting error questions asked in IBPS PO Pre 2017

1. Move around the bold words

One should focus on the bold words and start searching for an error related to those. Like there could be an error where the verb does not suit the bold word or number  is not as per the bold word. The errors are nothing but the mismatch with the bold words in these questions.

2. Focus on Adjectives and Prepositions

For this type of error detection questions, focus should be given to the use of prepositions, conjunctions and adjectives. 90% of the errors are framed this way only.

For more practice please click the below link

https://www.smartkeeda.com/General_English/Grammar_Knowledge/Find_the_Error_Quiz/newest/all/passage/Find_the_error_Quiz_35/


Pattern 6 for spotting error questions (asked in IBPS SO Pre 2017, RRB Office Assistant Mains 2017)

Directions: In each of the questions, a sentence is divided into four parts in which one of the parts is given in bold and is grammatically and contextually correct. You have to identify which fragment, apart from the bold one, is correct in terms of grammar and usage.

Nine months after the Union Cabinet’s (A)/ in-principal nod for offloading the (B)/ government’s stake in Air India, the (C)/ ball has finally been set rolling to privatize the bleating airline. (D)

A. Rest of the fragments have error
B. B
C. C
D. D
E. No error

Fragment B has error due to use of ‘principal’ which means major, whereas “principle” which means ‘a general idea’ is contextually correct here.

Fragment C has no error.

Fragment D uses “bleating” which means weak communication instead of “bleeding” to show the weak position of airline.

Hence option C is correct.

Tips to solve spotting error questions asked in IBPS PO Pre 2017

1. Study homophones

Homophones are the words that sounds similar but have different meaning. These type of questions contain errors regarding the context. Very few errors are observed in terms of Grammar ability.

2. Practice a lot

Regular practice will definitely help in achieving par excellence. Thus practice this type of new pattern error detection quizzes to gain better results.

For more questions with answers on error spotting questions please click the below link

https://www.smartkeeda.com/General_English/Grammar_Knowledge/Find_the_Error_Quiz/newest/all/passage/Find_the_Error_Quiz_26/


Pattern 7 for spotting error questions

Directions: In the questions given below, a statement has been divided into 5 parts with one or more parts containing an error (grammatical and contextual). You are required to choose the part/parts which do not have an error and are contextually and grammatically correct.

Recognizing the corruption prevailing in 2004, the Supreme Court (A) / passed an order banning private contractors from (B) / being suppliers for the Integrated Child Development (C) / Scheme and encouraging the government to employee (D) / local village organisations, mahila mandals or SHGs instead. (E)

Only D and E
Only A, B and D
Only B and C
Only A, B,C and E
None of these

Fragment D is erroneous as it contains noun “employee” in place of verb “employ”.

All other fragments are absolutely error-free, which is asked in the question.

Hence option D is correct.

Tips to solve spotting error questions for IBPS SO Pre, IBPS PO Pre and IBPS Clerk Pre

1. Read the directions carefully

One should be careful while reading directions, because bank authorities change the pattern of error detection questions every single year . Thus read the directions and then attempt that question.

2. Grammar and Spell check

Grammar rules and spelling of English words should be learnt, errors are usually formed from these two portions.
For more questions on find the error please click the below link

https://www.smartkeeda.com/General_English/Grammar_Knowledge/Find_the_Error_Quiz/newest/all/passage/Find_the_error_Quiz_39/


Hopefully this article has lived up your expectations and will help you in boosting up your preparation for the upcoming exams like RRB Scale 1 officer mains, RRB Office Assistant Mains, IBPS PO Pre, IBPS PO Mains, IBPS Clerk Pre, IBPS Clerk Mains and IBPS SO Pre.

For more information and questions on reasoning please log on to www.smartkeeda.com