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Who: the Government of India Act, 1858
What: allowed the Crown to have powers of East India Company
When: in 1858

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The Government of India Act 1858 was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom which was passed on 2nd August 1858. The Act was passed by British Government on the request of Indian Rebellion of 1857 to calm down the after effects of 1857 revolt. The act played a big roll to end the system of double government by abolishing the Board of Control and Court of Directors.

Provisions of the bill:

1. Under this Act, India was to be governed in the Name of Queen.

2. The Queen's Principal Secretary of State received the powers and duties of the Company's Court of Directors. A council of fifteen members was appointed to assist the Secretary of State for India.

3. The Secretary of State for India was empowered to send some secret despatches to India directly without consulting the Council.

4. The Crown was empowered to appoint a Governor-General and the Governors of the Presidencies.

5. Provision for the creation of an Indian Civil Service under the control of the Secretary of State.

Hence, the option B is correct.

Through which of the following Charter Acts, the Governor General of Bengal became the Governor General of India?
» Explain it
The Charter act of 1813 legalized the British colonization of India and the territorial possessions of the company were allowed to remain under its government, but were held "in trust for his majesty, his heirs and successors” for the service of Government of India.

Key Points:

1. Lord William Bentinck became the First Governor General of British India with help of the Charter Act of 1833.

2. This act made the Governor General of Bengal the Governor General of British India and all financial and administrative powers were centralized in the hands of Governor General-in-Council.

3. The number of the members of the Governor General’s council was again fixed to 4, which had been reduced by the Pitt’s India act. However, certain limits were imposed on the functioning of the 4th member.

4. The 4th member was NOT entitled to act as a member of the council except for legislative purposes.

Hence, the option C is correct.

A federal structure for India was first put forward by the:
» Explain it
The Government of India Act 1935, the voluminous and final constitutional effort at governing British India, articulated three major goals: establishing a loose federal structure, achieving provincial autonomy, and safeguarding minority interest through separate electorates. The federal provisions, intended to unite princely states and British India at the centre, were not implemented because of ambiguities in safeguarding the existing privileges of princes. In February 1937, however, provincial autonomy became a reality when elections were held.

Hence, the option C is correct.

» Explain it
The Constitution of India provides for a distinctive amending process when compared to the Constitutions of other nations. It can be described as partly flexible and partly rigid. The Constitution provides for a variety in the amending process. This feature has been commended by Australian academic Sir Kenneth Wheare who felt that uniformity in the amending process imposed “quite unnecessary restrictions” upon the amendment of parts of a Constitution. An amendment of the Constitution can be initiated only by the introduction of a Bill in either House of Parliament. The Bill must then be passed in each House by a majority of the total membership of that House and by a majority of not less than two-thirds of the members of that House present and voting. There is no provision for a joint sitting in case of disagreement between the two Houses. The Bill, passed by the required majority, is then presented to the President who shall give his assent to the Bill. If the amendment seeks to make any change in any of the provisions mentioned in the proviso to article 368, it must be ratified by the Legislatures of not less than one-half of the States. Although, there is no prescribed time limit for ratification, it must be completed before the amending Bill is presented to the President for his assent.

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Hence, the option D is correct.
 The Supreme Court has overturned a 2009 Delhi High Court judgment and recriminalized gay sex in India under which of the following sections of Indian Penal Code?
» Explain it
Section 377 of the Indian Penal Code:

Chapter XVI, Section 377 of the Indian Penal Code dating back to 1860, introduced during the British rule of India, criminalizes sexual activities ‘against the order of nature’, arguably including homosexual sexual activities.

The section was decriminalized with respect to sex between consenting adults by the High Court of Delhi on July 2009. That judgment was overturned by the Supreme Court of India on 11th December 2013, with the Court holding that amending or repealing Section 377 should be a matter left to Parliament, not the judiciary.

On 6th February 2016, the final hearing of the curative petition submitted by the Naz Foundation and others came for hearing in the Supreme Court. The three-member bench headed by the Chief Justice of India T. S. Thakur said that all the 8 curative petitions submitted will be reviewed afresh by a five-member constitutional bench.

Hence, the optiion D is correct.