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Directions: Kindly read the passage carefully and answer the questions given beside.

The last major global outbreak of disease before the COVID-19 pandemic declared in 2020 was the influenza pandemic (H1N1) of 2009. The H1N1 outbreak was the first pandemic of the 21st century. The disease was initially detected in February 2009 in Mexico and subsequently spread to other parts of that country. By April it had reached the United States. As infected persons travelled from Mexico and the United States to other parts of the world, the outbreak expanded. In June 2009 the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the outbreak a pandemic.
 
The total number of deaths from the H1N1 pandemic was between about 150,000 and 575,000, according to the U.S. Centres for Disease Control. While this was substantially lower than the total number of deaths from previous influenza pandemics—such as the 1968 outbreak of Hong Kong flu, which caused more than 750,000 deaths, and the influenza pandemic of 1918–19, which claimed the lives of an estimated 25 million to 50 million people—the rate at which H1N1 spread globally was unprecedented. Its rapid global dissemination was attributed to the high rates of passenger travel that characterize the modern era.
 
Knowing the incubation period of an infectious disease or the time from exposure to the causative agent to when symptoms first appear can provide important information during an outbreak, including when infected individuals will be symptomatic and most likely to spread the disease. Because time to symptom onset reflects pathogen growth, replication rate, and toxin excretion, the incubation period provides clues about the cause and source of a disease when these factors are unknown.
 
The incubation period for a given disease also offers insight into prognosis, including severity of the disease and how long an individual’s illness might be expected to last. Potential treatment strategies may also be inferred from the incubation period. In the COVID-19 pandemic, the incubation period for the infectious corona virus is between roughly 2 and 14 days. This has important implications for disease surveillance and for preventive measures, such as self-quarantine, which should last at least 14 days for persons who may have been exposed to the virus.
 
[Extracted, with edits and revisions, from www.brittanica.com, article: When Was the Last Pandemic?]
Important for :
» Explain it
D
As people who were contagious travelled and expanded it all over
From the first paragraph it can be clearly deduced that option D explains what is exactly asked in the question in the most relevant way. The people who were infected with H1N1 when travelled from Mexico and the USA to the other parts of the world, spread it and thus expanded it.
 
Hence the answer is option D.
 
» Explain it
B
By providing the exact time period, during which the virus would grow, multiply and the infected person will be influenced
 
Option A and option C are true facts but not the answer to what is exactly asked in the question, whereas from the third paragraph it is quite clear that option B mentions all the facts which will be provided by incubation period.
 
Hence the answer is option B.
» Explain it
C
Because it has led to conclusions regarding preventions of the disease
 
As it is clearly expressed in the last paragraph that the incubation period of corona has provided us the preventive measures using which a person who seem infected can be quarantined.
 
Hence the answer is option C.
 
» Explain it
C
The hard hit of H1N1 and incubation period
 
As passage mentions both the topics (H1N1 outbreak and incubation period), Option C defines it best while Option A, B and D are limited to particular topics only.
 
Hence the answer is option C.
 
5
What does the word ‘prognosis’ as used in the passage mean?
» Explain it
C
A medical forecast
 
The author has used the word to describe how incubation period gives prediction of the disease; option C describes it in the most relevant way
 
Hence the answer is option C.
 

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