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Directions: Read the following questions carefully and choose the right answer:
1
Directions: Read the statement and arguments carefully and choose the right answer.
 
There is a growing feeling amongst the larger Asian countries that the West is passé. The news coming out of there, especially since the 2008 financial crisis, is of declining populations, big layoffs and economic meltdowns in several countries of the European Union (EU), Italy being the latest. So much of bad news over an extended period gives the impression that the rise of the West has finally halted; that the West is now in cowering retreat. 
 
Which of the following weakens the argument provided in the passage above?
 
I. The Western media has contributed to perpetuating the news of the decline of the West.
 
II. The rich West hangs together, with a combined GDP several times than that of the rest of the world.
 
III. The U.S., has a growing population and remains the most productive and innovative in the world, as well as militarily the most powerful.
» Explain it
D
The argument in the passage is that the West is not doing well.
 
Statement I is incorrect as it does not impact the argument and simply states that the media plays a role in spreading the news of the West’s decline.
 
Statements II and III are correct. Both weaken the argument that the West has lost power.
 
Hence, option D is correct.
 
2
Directions: Kindly study the paragraph given below and answer the question that follows.

It is perhaps no surprise that political parties are deeply divided over the idea of holding simultaneous elections for the Lok Sabha and the State Assemblies. During consultations initiated by the Law Commission of India, nine parties opposed it, arguing that it went against the constitutional fabric and that it would be impractical. Four parties backed the concept.

Which of the following strengthens the case for simultaneous elections?

I. A simultaneous poll, particularly in this era where news is easily and widely disseminated, will privilege national issues over regional ones even if, arguably, the reverse may happen too.

II. Assemblies can be bunched into two categories based on whether their terms end close to the 2019 or the 2024 Lok Sabha elections and then elections could be held for one group in 2019, and for another in 2024 so that subsequent elections could be synchronised.

III. Election expenditure will be drastically cut and ruling dispensations will be able to focus on legislation and governance rather than having to be in campaign mode forever.
» Explain it
B
Statement I is incorrect as this weakens the argument for simultaneous elections.

Statement II is incorrect as it does not impact the argument and is merely a suggestion.

Statement III is correct as it shows the advantages of simultaneous elections and thus strengthens the argument.

Hence, option B is correct.
3
Directions: Kindly study the paragraph given below and answer the question that follows.

Recently, the Sensex 30 hurtled past 36,000 and the Nifty50 scaled 11000, voices of caution were drowned out by those celebrating the fastest 1000-point gain in the Sensex. Domestic market players continue to conjure up a variety of justifications for these gains — IMF’s bullish forecast, earnings revival, budget reforms, the January effect and surging domestic flows. But Indian investors still have the most to worry about a possible melt-up scenario, because with the Sensex 30 is one of the most expensive markets in the world and at the current levels, allows little margin of safety for disappointments. Inveterate bulls argue that this time it’s different because India’s stock rally in the last three years has been powered more by sticky domestic retail money, than fickle foreign flows.

Which of the following weakens the claim that the stock rally would be a sustained one this time?

I. Market intermediaries and funds have everything to gain from ballooning assets.

II. The Sensex 30’s price-earnings ratio is at 25.2 times and is at a very steep valuation already.

III. Most of the domestic money flooding into equities now is not from patient or informed investors.
» Explain it
A
Statement I is incorrect as it strengthens the argument for a sustained rise.

Statement II is incorrect as it does not affect the argument.

Statement III is correct. The reason of the sustained rise is mentioned to be the fact that domestic investors have invested more this time rather than FIIs which are volatile. Here, domestic investors are assumed to be resilient. But, if III is correct, this would imply domestic investors too could pull out money anytime. This weakens the argument.

Hence, option A is correct.
4
Directions: Kindly study the paragraph given below and answer the question that follows.

India will soon become a nation producing world leading products developed by a large number of small local entrepreneurs.

Which of the following is/are valid argument/arguments?

I. No. The true potential of entrepreneurship can be attained not by having too many startups but by ensuring that these startups grow into sizeable businesses.

II. Yes. Starting up a business is a hard task and growing it is much easier.

III. No. We support seeding of businesses but once these businesses are successful, our policies simply do not seem to help them.
» Explain it
C
To become a world leading producer, one needs to have economies of scale.

Statement I is a strong argument. It states that simply having a huge number of startups is not enough but what is done with them in terms of growth is important.

Statement II is not strong as it does not add anything to support the given original statement and is irrelevant.

Statement III is correct. If this is true, this is a strong argument and would stop our startups from making their mark as the policies are not supportive.

Hence, option C is correct.
5
Directions: Kindly read the paragraph below and answer the question that follows:

In India, handloom art is in crisis. The textile ministry’s Handlooms Census (2010) shows there has been a 33 per cent drop in handloom employment since 1995-96. India’s handloom exports touched Rs 2,246 crore in 2014-15. However this has been continually declining compared to the previous 4-5 years. Since India produces almost 85 per cent of the world’s handloom products, we can ill afford to let the handloom sector and handloom art to fall into decline.
 
Which of the following statements weakens the importance of the handloom sector?
 
I. Only 4.3 million people are engaged in handloom weaving and allied activities now, against 6.5 million in 1995-96.
 
II. Handloom is the second largest unorganized set of economic activities in the country, after agriculture that supports rural areas.
 
III. Handloom art and weaving centres are clustered all over the country with many of these art genres being popular in international markets.
» Explain it
A
Statement I is correct. It states how the number of people employed have been dwindling over the years. This weakens the importance of the handloom sector. 

Statement II is incorrect as it strengthens the importance of the argument.
 
Statement III is incorrect as it does not impact the argument.
 
Hence, option A is correct.
 
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How to solve Questions on Statement and Arguments for various bank and other exams
 
The topic of Statement and Arguments is one of the most common topics under the Reasoning Section and questions on statement and Arguments are asked in almost every Bank Exam. Not only Bank exams, questions on statement and Arguments are important for exams like CLAT 2019. This makes this topic of Statement and Arguments very important and something that cannot and should not be ignored while preparing for Bank and other related exams. All the Bank PO exams have at least a few questions on statement and Arguments. This article focuses on preparing for questions related to statement and Arguments for Bank Po exams of different types and exams like CLAT 2019.

Statement and Arguments questions are important not only for Bank Exams but also SSC exams, Law and even Insurance related exams respectively. Some prominent Bank exams for which fill in the blanks form an important topic include SBI Clerk, SBI PO, IBPS Po, IBPS clerk, RBI Grade B, SEBI Grade A, IBPS SO, Syndicate Bank, Canara Bank, RRB Assistant, RRB Scale I. Apart from the Bank exams mentioned above, fill in the blank related questions are also asked in SSC CHSL, SSC CGL, CGL Tier II English etc. These questions on Statement and Arguments also feature in Law exams like CLAT 2019.

With new pattern questions in statement and Arguments coming up in nearly every bank PO exam, the level of difficulty is set to rise in the coming times. Thus, it is necessary to understand how such questions on Statement and Arguments are to be solved and have a game plan ready to deal with them. One does not need to know the correct answer every time for all statement and Arguments questions. If the aspirant knows the basics, they can easily mark the correct answer by eliminating options.

We will talk about some important tips on solving questions on statement and Arguments below. Following this, we’ll also take a look at some example questions from various types of exams to understand the various patterns of Statement and Arguments questions that can be asked in an exam.

Smartkeeda brings to you free questions on statement and Arguments to solve for IBPS PO 2018, SBI PO, CLAT 2019, RBI Grade B, SEBI Grade A. You can now practice many types of questions on reasoning for IBPS PO 2018, SBI PO, CLAT 2019, RBI Grade B, SEBI Grade A. These questions will help you gain knowledge and also boost confidence in cracking the IBPS PO 2018, SBI PO, CLAT 2019, RBI Grade B, SEBI Grade A. These questions can also be used to prepare for exams like SBI Clerk, SSC CGL, IBPS PO Pre, SBI PO Pre, Canara Bank, Syndicate Bank, RRB Assistant Pre, RRB Scale I Pre, SSC CHSL, NIACL Assistant Pre etc. The section on statement and Arguments for IBPS Clerk 2018 consists of questions on a lot of topics that come regularly in the exam.

So what are you waiting for dear aspirants? Start practicing and attempting statement and Arguments questions and answers with explanation. Reasoning Quiz based on new pattern at Smartkeeda. Simply practice every day for IBPS PO 2018, SBI PO, CLAT 2019, RBI Grade B, SEBI Grade A and make sure you beat your competition! Aspirants should be prepared with all types of questions on statement and Arguments. These questions on statement and Arguments need to be practiced regularly at Smartkeeda. Smartkeeda brings to you free questions on statement and Arguments to solve for IBPS PO 2018, SBI PO, CLAT 2019, RBI Grade B, SEBI Grade A. You can now practice many types of questions on reasoning for IBPS PO 2018, SBI PO, CLAT 2019, RBI Grade B, SEBI Grade A. These questions will help you gain knowledge and also boost confidence in cracking the IBPS PO 2018, SBI PO, CLAT 2019, RBI Grade B, SEBI Grade A.

What do Questions on Statement and Arguments include?

In such questions, aspirants are provided with a passage. They also given a number of deductions/conclusions and have to choose the one which can be rightly concluded or inferred from the passage. New pattern questions on statement and Arguments have been steadily rising in the recent times in various bank exams. So, how can we make sure we are able to solve the questions no matter how new the pattern?

Solve Statement and Arguments Questions Tip 1:
Read the passage carefully: the aspirant needs to read the passage carefully and understand every line. The passage is mostly short and can be read quickly. Read it thrice and try and understand the meaning of each line.

Solve Statement and Arguments Questions Tip 2:
Try and understand of various solutions and possible scenarios of what can be done before going through the options: As you read the passage, make mental notes of important information. Without looking at the options, try and understand what the author is trying to say.

Solve Statement and Arguments Questions Tip 3:
Look at the options: Once you have read the passage, go through the options. Try and eliminate the ones which can be out rightly dismissed.

Solve Statement and Arguments Questions Tip 4:
Keep some key words in mind: Key words like therefore, thus, after all, nevertheless, even though etc are important and provide clues as to where the passage is going. Thus, these need to be kept in mind

Solve Statement and Arguments Questions Tip 5:
Do not spend a lot of time on one question: If you are unable to solve the question, move on and solve the other ones. If time allows, come back to this one later. This would also allow you to look at it from a fresh perspective.
 
Let us take a look at some examples of questions on statement and Arguments that have been coming in various Bank PO and other exams.

EXAM TYPE: IBPS PO MAINS

Direction: Read the paragraph carefully and answer the question given below:
 
The problems of the Indian judiciary at all levels have reached catastrophic levels. The public is losing confidence in the judiciary despite the latter’s assertions. Data show that they are acting on this belief by filing fewer cases year on year. It is likely to be a combination of delays, cost, uncertainty, inefficiency and corruption. Not one of these problems is solved to any degree by centralizing the manner of recruitment of judges. On the contrary, this endless, stagnant debate on the All-India Judicial Service (AIJS) only takes up time and energy instead of focusing attention on implementing more direct solutions to address the problems of the Indian judiciary.

Which of the following statements, if true, can strengthen the argument in the passage?


(A.) The Bar Council of India has mismanaged legal education and barring a few islands of excellence, almost no effort has gone into improving the standard of legal education across the country.

(B.) Under the AIJS, The judiciary plans to offer a lucrative pay scale and a lot of avenues for career advancement.

(C.) A lot of effort has been undertaken by the Supreme Court to ensure uniformity in pay scales across States through its orders in the All India Judges’ Association case.

(D.)The positions after AIJS implementation will come with sufficiently good terms and conditions of service, and a defined career progression.

(E.) District judges will be recruited centrally through an all-India examination and allocated to each State along the lines of the AIS.

Explanation

The central argument is that implementing AIJS is a bad idea and will not help. We thus need other reasons that would show AIJS will not make a difference.

Options B, C and D talk about the benefits of AIJS and are incorrect.

Option E is absurd and meaningless.

Option A talks about how legal education itself is a problem and implementing AIJS alone would be inadequate.

Hence, Option A is correct.

 
 
EXAM TYPE: RRBI SCALE I MAINS

Which of the following statements, if true, can weaken the argument in the passage?

The attraction for jihadists of an attack on the seat of Western Christendom is certainly not. So it is remarkable that Italy should not have experienced a single deadly jihadist attack when Britain, France, Germany and Spain have all been targeted—not least because it undermines the argument for a link between illegal immigration and terrorism (in the first half of 2017, Italy accounted for 82% of unauthorized arrivals in Europe). The most colourful explanation for the Italian exception is that Italy’s mafias have quietly deterred jihadists from gaining a toehold.

(A.) The fight against Italy’s formidably organized criminals has given its police a wealth of experience in monitoring tightly knit target groups.

(B.) Organized crime and terrorism have also encouraged judges to take a more expansive attitude than in other European countries to issuing warrants for wiretaps and particularly to the electronic surveillance of suspects’ conversations.


(C.) Italy’s mobsters exert greater control in the south, whereas a sizeable majority of its Muslims live in the north.

(D.)Al-Qaeda the dominant force in the jihadist world used Italy as its logistical base in Europe and this is what kept them safe.

(E.) None of the above

Explanation

Options A and B strengthen the argument as they both give credit to the stringent vigilance kept by authorities for the lack of any major attacks.

Option D again strengthens the argument from the point of view of the terrorists.

Option C is correct. If this is true, then there should have been more attacks in Italy.

Hence, option C is correct.

 
 
EXAM TYPE: IBPS SO PRE

Demonetisation came to be identified with the idea of checking corruption even in the minds of the educated and the well-informed. It makes sense in the context to revisit the perception on corruption. In the discourse on the grandiose measure of demonetisation 2016, we miss the point that after all it merely related to a narrow scheme of tax recovery management or at best a scheme with the supposed prospects of a bigger ‘catch’ for the government, if only substantial ‘dirty cash’ had not dared to enter the banking system, not to speak of weighing the cost-benefit ratio in the process.

Which of the following strengthens the argument that demonetization would not have any useful impact on the economy in terms of checking corruption and tax evasion?


(A.) As per a recent World Bank report, Demonetisation could accelerate financial deepening provided it is accompanied by a simultaneous and durable shift from cash to electronic payment methods.

(B.) The number of zero-balance accounts reduced from 77 percent pre-demonetization to 20 percent post demonetisation.

(C.) The number of tax returns filed by individuals shot up 25.3 percent and 9.1 million taxpayers have been added to the tax net.

(D.)Some of the economies with the highest cash-GDP ratios like Japan are not countries that are particularly well known for corruption, while there are a number of Third World countries where corruption is rampant, which also have very low currency-GDP ratio.

(E.) None of these

Explanation

Option A talks about the prerequisites for demonetization to succeed and does not really affect the argument in any significant way.

Options B and C weaken the argument as they convey the benefits of demonetization.

Option D is correct. Demonetization’s aim- to suck liquidity out of the system- is based on the premise that cash is the root of all evil. However, option D points out that there are countries like Japan using a lot of cash which are not corrupt and there are nations with low cash usage but a high level of corruption. Hence, reducing the amount of cash would not really help in fighting corruption .

Hence, option D is correct.

 
 
EXAM TYPE: Syndicate Bank

Directions: Read the paragraph carefully and answer the question given below.

For public sector undertaking (PSU) bankers, cleaning up the sea of red on their books thanks to bad loans will no longer be enough. The Centre has written to PSU banks and insurance companies to build public toilets in and around their branches and join Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s Swachh Bharat Abhiyan. They are to make special efforts in the construction of toilets for the public in their premises and nearby locations wherever feasible, and also arrange for their proper maintenance.

Which of the following could weaken the argument for building of toilets by PSU banks?


(A.) Their cleanliness efforts will be assessed every quarter along with achievements on credit growth, bad loan recoveries and priority sector lending.

(B.) The banks can undertake this under the aegis of Corporate Social Responsibility.

(C.) This does not form a part of a bank’s core function and would lead to diverting of attention and resources of the already stressed banks.

(D.)Construction of toilets near banks may lead to a security issue with the premises being frequented by the public.

(E.)  All except A and B
 
Explanation

Option A strengthens the argument.

Option B is irrelevant and in fact mildly strengthens the argument.

Options C and D are correct and present valid points to not undertake the above proposition.

Hence, option E is correct.

 
 
EXAM TYPE: Canara Bank

Direction: Read the given information carefully and answer the question that follows:

Contract farming refers to an agreement between farmers and marketing firms for the production and supply of agricultural products under forward agreements, frequently at predetermined prices.

Which of the following are arguments against contract farming?


(A.) The contract between farmers and buyers insulates farmers from price risk.

(B.) Contract farming helps the farmers in developing new skills and opens new markets.

(C.) In contract farming, farmers are to grow differentiated crops for the firm and this turns the firm into a sole buyer and farmers into price-takers.

(D.) The government has been making efforts to integrate farmers with agro-industries.

(E.) None of the above

Explanation

Options A and B strengthen the argument for use of contract farming and are incorrect.

Option D is merely factual and does not affect the argument.

Option C is correct. If a firm becomes the sole buyer of the farmer produce, this leaves the farmers vulnerable and the firm may exploit this situation to its advantage by offering lower prices to farmers.

Hence, option C is correct.

 
 
EXAM TYPE: RBI Grade B

Directions: Study the following summery & questions carefully and choose the right answer.

The protests along Gaza’s border with Israel, which turned violent with Israeli troops killing 18 Palestinians, were long in the making. Gaza, the 225 sq km strip of land where over two million people live, has been under an Israeli blockade for over a decade. In recent years, Egypt has also joined the blockade, practically cutting off the strip from the rest of the world. Despite international calls and repeated warnings by rights groups, Israel has not eased its restrictions on the strip. It says they are in place for “security reasons” — the ruling Hamas is designated a terrorist group by Israel.

Which of the following statements show that the fault may lie with Palestine as well?

(A.) Israel could escape censure for the latest outbreak of violence in Gaza as well due to support from Trump.

(B.) Gaza and the West Bank are ruled by rival factions- Hamas and Fatah- and there have been no joint efforts to mitigate the suffering of Gaza’s people.

(C.) The international community remains unresponsive when it comes to the grave rights violations in this Mediterranean enclave.

(D.)A UN-appointed commission probing the 2009 Gaza war accused both Israel and Palestinian militants of committing war crimes.

(E.) Most Gaza residents are refugees of the first Arab-Israeli war or their descendants.

Explanation

Option A is incorrect as it talks about Israel rather than focusing on what the question asks.

Option C is incorrect as it talks about where the world community is going wrong in tackling the situation and not how the Palestinian government may be wrong.


Option D is incorrect as it holds both Israel and Palestine to be wrong and not just Palestine.

Option E is incorrect as it is simply irrelevant to the context.

Only option B makes sense here.  It states that Palestine itself is not united and faces internal squabbles and a lack of redressing domestic issues.

Hence, option B is correct.
 
 
EXAM TYPE: IBPS PO Mains, SBI PO Mains

Directions: In making decisions about important questions, it is desirable to be able to distinguish between ‘strong’ arguments and ‘weak’ arguments. ‘Strong’ arguments are those, which are both important and directly related to the question. ‘Weak’ arguments are those, which are of minor importance and also may not be directly related to the question or may be related to a trivial aspect of the question. The question below is followed by two arguments numbered I and II. You have to decide which of the arguments a ‘strong’ argument is and which a ‘weak’ argument is.
 
Statement: 
Should India sell lethal weapons and ammunition to Afghanistan?

Arguments:
I:  Yes. Afghanistan is a strife-hit nation with many violent groups active that threatens the nation's peace and security.

II: Yes. A peaceful Afghanistan addresses the security concern of India.

(A.) Only argument 1 is strong

(B.) Only argument 2 is strong

(C.) Either argument 1 or 2 is strong

(D.) Neither argument 1 nor 2 is strong

(E.) Both arguments 1 and 2 are strong
 
Explanation

Argument I presents the case that many violent groups are active in Afghanistan which are threatening the internal peace and security of the nation. So, the need of Afghanistan to possess lethal weapons and ammunition is legitimate. Argument II says that a peaceful Afghanistan is in the interest of India. So, Selling weapons and ammunition to Afghanistan would help the nation to check violent groups operating in its territory and maintain peace.
 
So, both arguments 1 and 2 are strong.

Hence, option C is correct.