Syllogism for IBPS PO 2019 and SBI PO 2020 | Download Syllogism Questions PDF at Smartkeeda

Directions: In each question below there are given some statements followed by some conclusions. You have to take the given statements to be true even if they seem to be at variance with commonly known facts. Read all the conclusions and then decide which of the given conclusions logically follows/follow from the given statements, disregarding commonly known facts.
1
Statements:
No cream is lotion.
Not a single lotion is oil.
Every oil is shampoo.
 
Conclusions:
I. Some shampoos which are oil are cream as well.
II. No cream is an oil.
» Explain it
D
Checking C1:
 
Some shampoo which are oil are cream as well.
 
If we observe the given statements, we can find that in Statement 1 and 2, the middle term ‘lotion’ is distributed twice and therefore even after conversing either of the sentence we won’t be able to find a definite conclusion out of these two. Therefore, we can’t derive a definite relationship between ‘oil’ and ‘cream’.
 
C1 hence doesn’t follow.
 
Checking C2:
 
No cream is an oil.
 
Following the logic explained above, we can clearly say that C2 doesn’t follow either.
 
Between the two, none follow.
 
Option D is hence the correct answer.
2
Statements:
No laptop is apple.
Not a single apple is mobile.
Every mobile is tablet.
 
Conclusions:
I. Some tablets which are mobiles are laptops as well.
II. Some tablets are not apples.
» Explain it
A
Checking C1:

Some tablets which are mobiles are laptops as well.

If we observe the given statements, we can find that in Statement 1 and 2, the middle term ‘apple’ is distributed twice and therefore even after conversing either of the sentence we won’t be able to find a definite conclusion out of these two. Therefore, we can’t derive a definite relationmobile between ‘mobile’ and ‘laptop’.

C1 hence doesn’t follow.
 
Checking C2:

Some tablets are not apples.

From S2 and S3,

Not a single apple is mobile (E) + Every mobile is tablet (A) = Some tablets are not apples.

Clearly, C2 follows.
 
Among all, only C2 follows.
 
Option A is hence the correct answer.
3
Statements:
A few balloons are not toys.
All toys are bear.
No bear is wild.
 
Conclusions:
I. No wild is a toy.
II. No balloon is wild.
» Explain it
A
Checking C1: 

No wild is a toy.

From S1 and S2,

All toys are bear (A) + No bear is wild (E) = No toy is wild or No wild is a toy.

C1 hence follows.
 
Checking C2:

No balloon is wild.

Clearly, S1 in which the class ‘balloons’ exists is an O type statement, we can’t derive a definite relationship of it with any other statement.

Clearly, C2 doesn’t follow.
 
Evidently, only C1 follows.
 
Option A is hence the correct answer.
4
Statements:  
No curtain is an element.
All elements are pillows.
 
Conclusions: 
I. All pillows being curtains is a possibility.
II. Some elements are definitely not curtains.
» Explain it
B
No curtain is an element (E) + All elements are pillows (A) = E + A = O* = Some pillows are not curtains. Hence the possibility in I does not exist.

Again,

No curtain is an element (E) → conversion → No element is a curtain (E) → implication → Some elements are definitely not curtains. Hence II follows.

Therefore, option B is correct.
5
Statements:    
No phone is an airplane.
All ships are airplanes.

Conclusions:  
I. No ship is phone.
II. At least some airplanes are phones.
» Explain it
A
Using statement I and II, we get
 
All ships are airplanes + Converse of 'No phone is an airplane' = No ship is airplane. 
 
Hence, conclusion I follows.
 
Using statement I, we get
 
Converse of 'No phone is an airplane' = No airplane is phone.
 
Hence, conclusion II doesn't follow.
 
Option A is hence the correct answer.