Practice Reading Comprehension Questions with Answers for RRB Officer Scale 1, LIC AAO, IBPS PO at Smartkeeda

Directions:  Read the passage and answer the questions given below. Some words are printed in bold in order to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.

Member nations of the United Nations body charged with regulating shipping on the high seas adopted a first-ever strategy to blunt the sector’s large contribution to climate change  bringing another major constituency on board in the international quest to cap the planet’s warming well below an increase of 2 degrees Celsius (3.6 degrees Fahrenheit). The strategy embraced by a committee of the International Maritime Organization would lower emissions from container ships, oil tankers, bulk carriers and other vessels by at least 50 percent by the year 2050 vs. where they stood in 2008. The group also said that emissions from shipping should reach a peak, and begin to decline, as soon as possible.
 
But the United States “reserved” its position on the strategy, with Coast Guard official Jeffrey Lantz, who headed the delegation to the London deliberations, saying that the country views “the establishment of an absolute reduction target as premature.” The United States also objected to how responsibilities would be divided between developed and developing countries, and expressed “serious concern about how this document was developed and finalized.” Shipping in recent years has been responsible for about 800 million tons annually of carbon dioxide emissions, according to Dan Rutherford, the marine and aviation program director of the International Council on Clean Transportation, who was in attendance for the deliberations in London. That means shipping’s emissions are 2.3 percent of the global total. “If you counted it as a country, it would be the sixth-largest source of CO2 emissions,” said Rutherford, noting that 800 million tons of annual emissions is comparable to emissions from Germany.
 
Moreover, if nothing is done to halt emissions growth in the industry, emissions are projected to continue to grow, and shipping would burn up a significant share of the remaining global carbon emissions allowable under the Paris climate agreement releasing as much as 101 billion tons of carbon-dioxide-equivalent emissions between now and 2075, according to an analysis by Rutherford’s organization. Shipping and aviation are two major greenhouse-gas-producing sectors that have sat rather uncomfortably in the context of the global push to cut emissions under the Paris climate agreement.
 
Both sectors are very difficult to decarbonize, since they rely on energy-dense fuels to allow ships or planes to travel great distances without stopping. Meanwhile, since the sectors have major international components, they are not the responsibility of any single country to regulate as part of a domestic climate-change strategy. Instead, addressing their role in climate change has fallen to United Nations bodies such as the IMO and the International Civil Aviation Organization. Yet despite the ambition of the current strategy for shipping, Rutherford’s group’s analysis shows that it may not be strong enough. The group says that to be consistent with the Paris agreement, shipping should emit no more than 17 billion tons of carbon-dioxide-equivalent emissions from 2015 onward but that the current agreement implies emissions between 28 billion and 43 billion tons.
 
The group says that to be consistent with the Paris agreement, shipping should emit no more than 17 billion tons of carbon-dioxide-equivalent emissions from 2015 onward but that the current agreement implies emissions between 28 billion and 43 billion tons. For shipping and aviation to decarbonize, current fuel oils would have to be replaced by biofuels or, perhaps  ultimately, hydrogen or batteries. But such innovations so far are being tested only in smaller ships and planes. Rutherford said.“The largest container ships and airplanes use a tremendous amount of energy. They’re going to be harder to electrify or put hydrogen in,” he said.
1
What is the primary purpose of the author of the passage?
 
I. to highlight the significance of the strategy adopted by IMO to reduce the emissions by shipping industry which would help tackle climate change
 
II. to highlight the contribution of shipping and aviation industry in the total volume of emissions and its impact on climate.
 
III. to study the impact of climate change on low lying island nations and address their concerns of emissions from the shipping industry
» Explain it
A
Statement I is correct. Refer to the lines: Member nations of the United Nations body charged with regulating shipping on the high seas adopted a first-ever strategy to blunt the sector’s large contribution to climate change  bringing another major constituency on board in the international quest to cap the planet’s warming well below an increase of 2 degrees Celsius (3.6 degrees Fahrenheit).
 
Statements I and II do not cover the entire scope of the passage.
 
Thus, option A is correct.
» Explain it
D
Option A is incorrect. Refer to the lines: Both sectors are very difficult to decarbonize, since they rely on energy-dense fuels to allow ships or planes to travel great distances without stopping. Meanwhile, since the sectors have major international components, they are not the responsibility of any single country to regulate as part of a domestic climate-change strategy. Instead, addressing their role in climate change has fallen to United Nations bodies such as the IMO and the International Civil Aviation Organization.
 
Option B is incorrect. The passage does not explicitly state that shipping is the largest contributor of carbon-dioxide among other industries.
 
Option C is incorrect. Refer to the lines: Member nations of the United Nations body charged with regulating shipping on the high seas adopted a first-ever strategy to blunt the sector’s large contribution to climate change  bringing another major constituency on board in the international quest to cap the planet’s warming well below an increase of 2 degrees Celsius (3.6 degrees Fahrenheit).
 
Option D is correct. Refer to the lines:  For shipping to decarbonize, current fuel oils would have to be replaced by biofuels or, perhaps  ultimately, hydrogen or batteries. But such innovations so far are being tested only in smaller ships, rather than the largest vessels, Rutherford said.“The largest container ships use a tremendous amount of energy. They’re going to be harder to electrify or put hydrogen in,” he said.
 

Thus, option D is correct.
3
Out of the given statements, which one is Dan Rutherford likely to agree with?
 
I. Shipping emissions annually are equivalent to the emissions of Germany.
 
II. If the shipping industry emissions continue to grow at the current rate then they would eat into the global  carbon budget.
 
III. The current strategy to curtail shipping industry emissions is not strong enough and the proposed limits are way lower than the required  emission levels.
» Explain it
D
Statement I is correct. Refer to the lines: “If you counted it as a country, it would be the sixth-largest source of CO2 emissions,” said Rutherford, noting that 800 million tons of annual emissions is comparable to emissions from Germany.
 
Statement II is correct. Refer to the lines:  Moreover, if nothing is done to halt emissions growth in the industry, emissions are projected to continue to grow, and shipping would burn up a significant share of the remaining global carbon emissions allowable under the Paris climate agreement releasing as much as 101 billion tons of carbon-dioxide-equivalent emissions between now and 2075, according to an analysis by Rutherford’s organization.
 
Statement III is correct. Refer to the lines: Yet despite the ambition of the current strategy for shipping, Rutherford’s group’s analysis shows that it may not be strong enough. The group says that to be consistent with the Paris agreement, shipping should emit no more than 17 billion tons of carbon-dioxide-equivalent emissions from 2015 onward but that the current agreement implies emissions between 28 billion and 43 billion tons.
 
Thus, option D is correct.
» Explain it
C
Option A is incorrect. The passage does not talk about heavy industries.
 
Option B is incorrect. The passage does not talks about transportation and food processing sector.
 
Option C is correct. Refer to the lines: The strategy embraced by a committee of the International Maritime Organization would lower emissions from container ships, oil tankers, bulk carriers and other vessels by at least 50 percent by the year 2050 vs. where they stood in 2008. The group also said that emissions from shipping should reach a peak, and begin to decline, as soon as possible.
 

Option D is incorrect as the passage does not talk about coal and natural gas.
 
Thus, option C is correct.
» Explain it
D
Option A is incorrect. The passage does not talk about intensive investments being required by aviation and shipping industry.
 
Option B is incorrect. The passage does not talk about automation.
 
Option C is incorrect. The passage only discusses the technological aspect of decarbonization of shipping and aviation industry. It does not talk about the financial or commercial aspect of it.
 
Option D is correct. Refer to the lines: Both sectors are very difficult to decarbonize, since they rely on energy-dense fuels to allow ships or planes to travel great distances without stopping.

Rutherford said.“The largest container ships and airplanes use a tremendous amount of energy. They’re going to be harder to electrify or put hydrogen in,” he said.

 
Thus, option D is correct.

Reading Comprehension for IBPS PO 2020 and IBPS Clerk 2020 Exams | RC Quiz No 121 at Smartkeeda


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