Directions : Study the following bar chart carefully and answer the questions given beside.
 
The following bar graph shows the percentage break-up of  Nitin’s salary from year 2014 to 2018. 

1
If the ratio of savings in the year 2015 and 2018 are in the ratio of 3 : 5, then what is the ratio of personal expenses in the year 2015 and 2018.
» Explain it
C
Let total salary in 2015 be Rs. x

Total salary in 2018 be Rs. y

According to the given information:

The ratio on saving in the year 2015 and 2018 are in the ratio 3 : 5.

15% of x  =  3
35% of y 5

⇒  x  =  3  ×  35  =  7  ………………… (i)
y 5 15 5

∴ Ratio of personal expenses =  40% of x
15% of y

⇒ Ratio of personal expenses =  0.4x
0.15y

Now taking the values of x/y from (i)

⇒ Ratio of personal expenses =  7  ×  40  = 56 : 15
5 15

Hence, the required ratio is 56 : 15

Hence, option C is correct.
2
If the saving in 2014 is 80% of the saving in 2016, then what is the total expenditure on food in 2014. (Given that total salary in 2016 is INR 1,85,000)
» Explain it
B
Total salary in 2016 = INR 1,85,000

⇒ Saving in 2016 = 50% of 1,85,000

⇒ Saving in 2016 = INR 92,500

According to the given information:

The saving in 2014 is 80% of the saving in 2016

∴ Saving in 2014 =  80  × 92,500 = INR 74,000
100

Let the total salary in 2014 be INR x

∴ 35% of x = 74,000

⇒ x =  74000 × 100
35

Now, expenditure on food in 2014 is 21% of x

∴ Expenditure on food in 2014

= 74000 ×  100  ×  21  = INR 44,400
35 100

Hence, option B is correct.
3
Every year if there is an increase of 100% in monthly salary as compared to previous year’s monthly salary, then what is the ratio of monthly salary in 2018 to the expenses on travelling in 2015.
» Explain it
D
Let the monthly salary in 2015 be INR 100

According to the given information:

Every year there is an increase of 100% in monthly salary as compared to previous year’s monthly salary

Then salary in 2016 = INR 200

⇒ Salary in 2017 = INR 400

⇒ Salary in 2018 = INR 800

Now, expenses on travelling in 2015 = 32% of salary

⇒ Expenses on travelling in 2015 = INR 32

∴Reqd. ratio =  800  = 25 : 1
32

Hence, option D is correct.
4
If the total salary in the year 2013 is INR 3,00,000 and there is an increase of 18% in the year 2014, then find his travelling and personal expenses combined in the year 2014?
» Explain it
E
Total salary in year 2013 = INR 3,00,000 
 
There is an increase of 18% 
 
∴ Total salary in 2014 = 3,00,000 + 18% of 3,00,000 
 
⇒ Total salary in 2014 = INR 3,54,000 
 
Now, Expense on travelling in 2014 = 18% of 3,54,000 = INR 63,720 
 
Personal expense in 2014 = 26% of 3,54,000 = INR 92,040 
 
Combined expense = INR (63,720 + 92,040) = INR 1,55,760
 
Hence, option E is correct.
5
What is the percentage of average money spent by Nitin on food of average money saved by him during all these years, if his salary per annum for each year was INR 5,00,000?
» Explain it
C
Money spend by Nitin on food = 21% + 13% + 20% + 10% + 40%

Average money spend by Nitin on food

104%  = 20.8% of 5,00,000
5

Average money spend by Nitin on food = INR 1,04,000

Now, Money saved by Nitin = 35% + 15% + 50% + 17% + 35%

Average money saved by Nitin

152%  = 30.4% of 5,00,000
5

Average money saved by Nitin = INR 1,52,000

∴ Reqd. ratio =  104000  × 100 = 68.42% 
152000

Hence, option C is correct.