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Directions: In the question given below, a short paragraph is given. Select the answer choice that provides the correct sentence that completes the passage and is contextually and grammatically correct:
 
On Friday, Facebook banned Cambridge Analytica (CA). We have been talking about the role CA's uniquely-targeted advertising approach played in the 2016 US presidential election since just after the election. This much-more-recent ban occurred because of a breach of data management protocol (which broadly covers how data are obtained, transferred, and stored) and not because of the way those data were used. An academic researcher ,Aleksandr Kogan obtained the data by asking users to opt-in to an app designed to estimate users' personalities from their pattern of behaviour on Facebook. _______________(A)_______________.
 
Facebook found out about the break in data management protocol and requested that CA delete the data. CA agreed, but then Facebook found out from a whistle blower that they had lied, and so now CA is banned. _______________(B)_______________. Such prediction and targeting happens every day, anytime you engage in a behaviour that can be linked to your identity, either online, through social media profiles that track individuals across websites by comparing email addresses or site cookies, or in the 'real world', with purchases made at different stores using different bank and credit cards being matched up by credit reporting agencies.
 
Most of this prediction happens in the background, with consumers rarely thinking about it, and consent for the collection and use of data exists in the fine print of user agreements that most of us click through without thinking. _______________(C)_______________. If a researcher were to infer political orientation by politicians a person supports, we would call that face valid data. That is, the measure (politicians supported) is clearly related to the thing we're trying to predict (political orientation).
 
What's less intuitive is that most - if not all - of your personal attributes can be guessed (even if imperfectly) by any information that is known about you. Measures do not need to be face valid to provide accurate estimates. If we can establish that one thing is consistently related to another, it doesn't matter if that link is obvious or causal. _______________(D)_______________. This is commonly referred to as an empirical, or bottom-up, or data-driven approach to measurement.
 
_______________(E)_______________.This is an example of the principle of aggregation: more data is always better, even if some or all of that data is of poor quality. Of course, you need less high-quality data to get the same accuracy of prediction; but if high-quality data might be suspect (for example, concerns about lying in direct, face-valid measures) or just flat out aren't available (for example, in-depth measures of millions of internet users), lots of low-quality data will do just fine.
» Explain it
A
Option B is incorrect because it talks Kogan's app and not about the Cambridge Analytica. The line following the blank talks about CA.
 
Option C is incorrect because it focuses on the app's role in collecting data but it does not describe the role of Cambridge Analytica. The line following the blank talks about CA.
 
Option D is incorrect. The statement talks about Facebook's policy, it does not talk about how Cambridge Analytica misused it.
 
Option E is incorrect because it is a statement of Kogan which is irrelevant as the line following the blank talks about deleting of data.
 
Hence, option A is the correct answer.
» Explain it
B
Option A is incorrect. It talks about predicting behaviour. The line following the blank talks about targeting that users are subjected to using their data.
 
Option C is incorrect. It gives an overview of the algorithm and does not explain predictions and targeting that the line following the blank talks about.
 
Option D is incorrect. It describes how likes can be used to predict behaviour but it is irrelevant as the line following the blank talks about behaviour which has digital records
 
Option E is incorrect. This statement is irrelevant as it does not relate to online or digital data.
 
Option B is correct as it describes the usage of data and digital records.
 
Hence, option B is the correct answer.
» Explain it
C
Option A is incorrect. It talks about personality based profiling and Facebook. It does not talks about political orientation.

Option B is incorrect as it is ambiguous as it talks about models.

Option D is incorrect as it talks of model and predictions which is irrelevant contextually.

Option E gives a general idea about likes but it does not relate to the line after the blank.

Option C is correct as it talks about political orientation which is what the line following the blank talks about.

Hence, option C is the correct answer.
» Explain it
D
Option A is redundant as it talks of correlation while the preceding line talks of consistency.

Option B is irrelevant as the line preceding the blank talk about quality of data and predictions and not data mining.

Option C is incorrect as it contradicts the argument made by preceding lines.

Option E is incorrect because the preceding lines talks about accuracy and its significance.

Option D is correct as it talks about the link between data and behaviour.

Hence, option D is the correct answer. 
» Explain it
E
Option A is incorrect as it talks about a model but the line following the blank talks about aggregation.
 
Option B is incorrect because talks about data becoming irrelevant which is not related to aggregation.
 
Option C is incorrect as it talks about quality of data which is not related to aggregation.
 
Option D is incorrect because it talks about quantity of data which is not related to aggregation.
 
Option E is correct. Aggregation means the collection of related items of content so that they can be displayed or linked to.
 
Hence , option E is the correct answer.