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Directions: In this set of questions a narration is given. You have to take the given statements to be true even if they seem to be at variance with commonly known facts and then decide which of the given conclusions logically follows from the given statements. 

As Diwali festival is approaching Vikrant goes to his father with a view to convince him for buying crackers for Vikrant. He says, “Dad! My friend Rahul likes crackers very much.”

His father replies, “Son, all crackers are harmful and all the harmful things make this world a worse place to live in.” He continued, “Even sweets are harmful.”

“But Dad, Rahul is an intelligent boy.” argues Vikrant.

His father replies, “I do acknowledge too that Rahul is an intelligent boy, but alas! Some intelligent boys are not wise.”

With a dejected face, Rahul leaves for his tuition classes.
» Explain it
D
The extracted statements:

I. Rahul likes crackers very much.
II. All crackers are harmful.
III. All the harmful things make this world a worse place to live in.
IV. Even sweets are harmful.
V. Rahul is an intelligent boy.
VI. Some intelligent boys are not wise.

How option D is the correct answer:

From S1 and S2, we get

Rahul likes crackers very much + All crackers are harmful = Rahul likes harmful things.

Clearly, option D is the correct answer.
 
» Explain it
B
The extracted statements:

I. Rahul likes crackers very much.
II. All crackers are harmful.
III. All the harmful things make this world a worse place to live in.
IV. Even sweets are harmful.
V. Rahul is an intelligent boy.
VI. Some intelligent boys are not wise.

How option B is the correct answer:

Refer to S6 – Some intelligent boys are not wise.”

Here, we are not sure of any of the elements of the class ‘wise’ and therefore possibilities between ‘wise’ and ‘intelligent boys’ do exist.
All wise being intelligent boys is a possibility.

Option B is hence the correct answer.
 
» Explain it
C
The extracted statements:

I. Rahul likes crackers very much.
II. All crackers are harmful.
III. All the harmful things make this world a worse place to live in.
IV. Even sweets are harmful.
V. Rahul is an intelligent boy.
VI. Some intelligent boys are not wise.

How option C is the correct answer:

Refer to S3 - All the harmful things make this world a worse place to live in.

Converse of the above statement = Some things that make this world a worse place to live in are harmful.

But the given conclusion specifies ‘All things’ instead of ‘Some’.

Clearly, the conclusion doesn’t follow.

Option C is hence the correct answer.
 
4
Which of the following statements is redundant in deriving the conclusion – “Some who are intelligent like harmful things very much”?
» Explain it
A
The extracted statements:

I. Rahul likes crackers very much.
II. All crackers are harmful.
III. All the harmful things make this world a worse place to live in.
IV. Even sweets are harmful.
V. Rahul is an intelligent boy.
VI. Some intelligent boys are not wise.

The given conclusion: Some who are intelligent like harmful things very much.

Kindly refer to S1, S2 and S5.

From S1 and S2, we get

Rahul likes crackers very much + All crackers are harmful = Rahul likes harmful things very much.

Taking converse of S5 and the above derived conclusion, we get

Some intelligent boys are Rahul + Rahul likes harmful things very much = Some intelligent boys like harmful things very much.

Clearly, the statement given as option A is not necessary here.

Option A is hence the correct answer.
 
5
Which of the following statements is required to give us the conclusion – “Some harmful things are not snacks.”? 
» Explain it
D
The extracted statements:

I. Rahul likes crackers very much.
II. All crackers are harmful.
III. All the harmful things make this world a worse place to live in.
IV. Even sweets are harmful.
V. Rahul is an intelligent boy.
VI. Some intelligent boys are not wise.

How option D is the correct answer:

Using the statement given as option D and converse of S2, we get

Some harmful things are crackers + No cracker is snack = Some harmful things are not snacks.

Option D is hence the correct answer.